Left Image: PSTM, Middle Image: PSDM, Right Image: Diffraction Energy
Absolute Imaging has extensive expertise to provide 2D and 3D Depth Imaging in onshore and offshore environments. Depth expertise includes ray and wave equation-based migrators, isotropic and anisotropic analysis, and model building for accurate simulation of wave propagation in complex subsurface areas. Model refinement includes methods of travel time error estimation, constrained velocity inversion, and grid and/or horizon-based tomography. Well information can also be used in the initial model creation or for model-updating workflows. A variety of analysis tools provide for model validation and seismic/ray/model overlay visualization. Depth Imaging helps reduce drilling risk in subsurface geological structures like thrust faults, fault shadows, reefs, subsalt, sub-basalt, salt flanks, gas plumes, and those with subtle lateral velocity variations. Our Advanced Imaging group has experience working in some of the most complex geological environments from around the world.
At Absolute Imaging, our Advanced Imaging technology has the ability to 5D decompose recorded data and separate the wavefield into specular/reflection and diffraction energy. Decomposition is conducted prior to integration or stacking so that the lower energy associated with subsurface diffractions can be isolated and subsequently enhanced. Imaging of diffraction energy is enabled by a rich multi-dimensional decomposition defined by generating full-azimuth directional gathers. For each imaging point in the subsurface, 5D decomposition is conducted in the local angle domain that includes structural dip and full 360-degree azimuth. By performing this process in the local angle domain, energy associated with high-resolution diffraction events is preserved. 5D decomposition is carried out with a point diffraction ray-tracing operator that shoots rays from the imaging point equally in all directions.
Specular Weighted Stack provides the most continuous image, while retaining crisp faulting used to emphasize and interpret major continuous events and major discontinuities. Specular Imaging uses a special Common Reflection Angle Migrator (CRAM) which is an Advanced Beam Migration ideal for imaging beneath salt structures and in overthrust areas, particularly where there is a dependence of velocity with azimuth (anisotropy). Absolute Imaging utilizes visualization tools that can be used to co-render both specular and diffracted energy stacks for improved interpretation.