Standard processing workflows are suitable to image larger subsurface geological features and faults. In standard processing, human eyes are focused on continuous reflections but not on details within layers. Small scale discontinuities that cause diffractions on seismic records are lost during standard processing in favor of continuous reflectors. This diffracted energy is of great importance and is lost in stacking processes that are applied in standard seismic processing and imaging procedures.
Diffracted energy carries high resolution information of small scale discontinuities and subsurface geological features, such as isolated scatters and reflector edges, which are often of high interest in seismic interpretation. For instance after diffraction imaging processing, interpreters are able to conduct much better fault analysis. This analysis will provide improved fault geometry interpretation, better understanding of the fault seal, reservoir scale fault compartmentalization and permeability, reservoir fluid flow, etc.
The main challenge for generating diffraction images are that diffraction energy is usually much weaker than, and often overwhelmed by, the reflection.
At Absolute Imaging we use Paradigm’s ES360 technology to decompose and separate the wavefield into specular reflection and diffraction energy. Decomposition is conducted without integration or stacking, so that the lower energy associated with subsurface diffractions can be isolated and subsequently enhanced.
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